who invented the chinese fortune cookie

Meanwhile, Canton, China, native David Jung had immigrated to Los Angeles and in 1916 he founded the Hong Kong Noodle Company. The popular companion to Chinese take out has a surprising history that began far from its signature homeland. In fact, they simply brought them over from Japan. For many lovers of Chinese take out food around the world, the fortune cookie has been a staple in the meals of hungry people for years. In 1992, Wonton food tried to introduce their fortune cookies in China but failed since the Chinese considered them to be too-American. Around 1907, the story goes, Hagiwara was fired by an anti-Japanese mayor and then rehired after a public outcry. The only problem is, they're not Chinese. The fortune cookie industry changed dramatically after the fortune cookie machine was invented by Shuck Yee from Oakland, California. Like the mooncake legend, no proof for this story exists. Were fortune cookies invented so everyone could have a ‘fortune’ ? Chinese fortune cookies are very simple to make and consist of only a few ingredients, including egg whites, butter, sugar, vanilla extract and flour. Why not the Mexican fortune cookie,” says Martinez, a Temple native who's marketed his creation to restaurants nationwide. After an anti-Japanese mayor fired Hagiwara, a new mayor later reinstated him. While the confectionary quickly became famous for its mochi—sweet round rice cakes accompanied by everything from sweet red bean paste to peanut butter—at some point Kito began making fortune cookies and selling them to Chinese restaurants. Several people have claimed to be the sole inventor of the fortune cookie, including the founder of Los Angeles’ Hong Kong Noodle Company, David Jung, who claimed that he invented them in 1918, and Seiichi Koto, a Los Angeles restaurant owner who claimed that he got the idea to insert fortunes into cookies from slips that are sold at temples in Japan, and sold his cookies to restaurants … Another company tried to get in on the action in 1992, but they gave up due to lack of sales. Or maybe not. The first fortune cookie was made in Los Angeles, California. Fortune cookies might not even have been invented by someone Chinese: the San Francisco denizen proclaimed in that 1983 mock trial as the inventor of the confection was Japanese. There’s a lot of disagreement over who actually invented the first fortune cookie. They’re meant to bestow good luck on the person picking up and eating them. Also in the 1960s, Lotus Fortune Cookies, of San Francisco, was hired to make cookies with fortunes soliciting ideas for a new Pepsodent toothpaste jingle. This practice, too, turns out to have historical antecedents. Meanwhile, Canton, China, native David Jung had immigrated to Los Angeles and in 1916 he founded the Hong Kong Noodle Company. Jul 30, 2020 - You crack open the fortune cookie at the end of your meal and ... well, it may not exactly tell your future, but who doesn't secretly hope it promises something fabulous? There appears to be some uncertainty over who invented it. According to Hagiwara’s great-great-grandson Erik S. Hagiwara-Nagata, a San Francisco landscape architect, “It was developed to suit American tastes by making it sweet.”. They were actually invented in Japan, and then migrated to U.S. Japanese restaurants in California in the early 1900's. When the restaurant Fortune Cookie opened in Shanghai, in 2013, local patrons were mystified. Lee noticed the food at Chinese restaurants differed greatly from … The families of Japanese or Chinese immigrants in California that claim to have invented or popularized fortune cookies all date the cookie's appearance between … The Origin Of Fortune Cookies. According to sources, Kito's inspiration was omi-kuji – fortunes written on slips of paper found in Japanese Buddhist temples. Whatever the fortune cookie’s provenance, it became a staple in America’s Chinese restaurants in the years following World War II. A Chinese immigrant, David Jung, owner of the Chinese Noodle House, invented the cookie in 1918 after growing concerned for the poor people around his shop. Rather, it was invented in California. As Greg Louie, owner of Lotus Fortune Cookies, says, “You write ‘em, you read ‘em, you eat ‘em.”. I’ve seen people speculate about origins but it would take a good bit of Google search to turn that up, and I’m not up for it. However, there is no surviving documentation showing how he came up with the idea. Today's Mooncakes don’t contain messages, but some believe that during the American railway boom of the 1850s, Chinese railway workers came up with their own substitute for the mooncakes they were unable to buy: homemade biscuits with good luck messages inside. The person who invented fortune cookies did so in 1918. After this, the cookies are half-baked and then shaped, while placing the fortune inside. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Excited about this revelation, research specialist Noriko Sanefuji went out to investigate. Fortune cookies have not been known to originate in America for most people. Fortune cookies might not even have been invented by someone Chinese: the San Francisco denizen proclaimed in that 1983 mock trial as the inventor of the confection was Japanese. They originated in Japan and are mentioned in fiction and art as early as 1878. Interesting stuff about the origin of fortune cookies, how Jews and their love for Chinese food came about, Chinese immigrants in the restaurant business, the author's search for the greatest chinese restaurant in the world, American vs. Asian soy sauces, etc. The owner of … Fortune cookies are sugary and crisp cookies that are made from vanilla, sugar, sesame seed oil, and flour with a small paper inside. A skilled handworker could make about 750 cookies per hour; the new machine could turn out 1,500. Support with a donation>>. The supposed inventor was a gardener named Makoto Hagiwara, who built the famous Japanese Tea Garden in Golden Gate Park. San Francisco is one claimant, though San Francisco has claimed credit for inventing just about every pseudo-ethnic dish, including chop suey, Irish coffee, and cioppino, an Italian seafood stew. Fortune cookies might not even have been invented by someone Chinese: the San Francisco denizen proclaimed in that 1983 mock trial as the inventor of the confection was Japanese. Armed with information from Ms. Lee, Noriko contacted Gary Ono, whose grandfather, Suyeichi Okamura, an immigrant from Japan, is one of the claimants to the original fortune cookie in the U.S. Noriko Sanefuji (left) and Gary Ono (right). In the ‘60s, a man named Edward Louie founded Lotus Fortune in San Francisco and created an automatic fortune cookie machine. The author's writing style makes for an easy read. In 1983 the Court of Historical Review—a self-appointed, quasi-judicial organization based in San Francisco—held a trial to decide the question. Answer to: What year were fortune cookies invented? All About the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival, Chefs Are Serving Up Cultural Pride Straight to Your Door, The 8 Best Cupcake Delivery Services of 2020, Garlic and Ginger: Chinese Cooking Staples, The 8 Best Mexican Cookbooks to Read in 2020, Chop Suey vs. Chow Mein in Chinese Cuisine, The 7 Best Milk Delivery Services of 2020, Chinese Noodle History, Types, and Recipes. The cookies were based on Japanese senbei—toasted rice wafers. Marina Montano said she and her husband thought of the idea for Dichos while eating fortune cookies at a Chinese restaurant in Tucson during a birthday celebration in March 2007. They’re Not Folded. As it turns out though, fortune cookies were actually invented in Japan, which is probably why there are so many credible stories of Japanese immigrants in the early 20th century “inventing” fortune cookies. Thus, fortune cookies are sometimes humorously referred to as “A Chinese food invented by the Japanese in America”. To license content, please contact licenses [at] americanheritage.com. This again continues with many other names who are acclaimed of having invented the fortune cookie. 'Fortune Cookie' Offers New Taste of America Growing up, Chinese-American writer Jennifer 8. Beginning in the 1870s, Chinese railroad workers in America baked holiday greetings inside biscuits. Fortune cookies might not even have been invented by someone Chinese: the San Francisco denizen proclaimed in that 1983 mock trial as the inventor of the confection was Japanese. Regarding Los Angeles, it is said that David Jung, a Chinese immigrant living in Los Angeles invented the cookie in 1918, as he wanted to offer it … ‘Fortune cookies’ were initially known as ‘fortune tea cookies’ in the United States, until around the time of World War II. Equally confident in its cookie claim is San Francisco’s perennial rival, Los Angeles. [8] The machine allowed for mass production of fortune cookies which subsequently allowed the cookies to drop in price to become the novelty and courtesy dessert many Americans are familiar with after their meals at most Chinese restaurants today. A very popular story dates back to 1918 when, in Los Angeles, founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Co., David Jung, invented the fortune cookie as a tasty treat and encouraging word for unemployed men who gathered on the streets. He introduced the cookie in his Tea Garden in San Fransisco in the late 1890's to the early 1900's. Concerned about the poor people he saw wandering near his shop, he created the cookie and passed them out free on the streets. One is that of Los Angeles and the other one is that of San Francisco. A fortune cookie is a crisp cookie usually made from flour, sugar, vanilla, and sesame seed oil with a piece of paper inside, a "fortune", on which is an aphorism, or a vague prophecy. David Jung, owner of the Hong Kong Noodle Company in Los Angeles, also lists fortune cookie invention as his claim to fame. Invented in California, the machine allowed for mass production, streamlining production efficiencies and lower per unit prices. Who Invented the Fortune Cookie? Earlier this year we invited Jennifer 8 Lee, author of The Fortune Cookie Chronicles, to meet with our staff and share her insights into the mysteries of Chinese food.One topic that really caught our attention was the origin of the fortune cookie. The answer is: Mr. Seiichi Kito, the founder of Fugetsu-do in Little Tokyo in LA, came up with the idea of putting a fortune message in cookies from "Omikuji(fortune slip)" that is sold at temples and shrines in Japan. Shortly after the Second World War, however, Chinese vendors began to monopolise the production of fortune cookies. The mixture is whipped for several minutes, until the flour has dissolved into the mixture. Perhaps the most plausible story dates back to 1918 when, in Los Angeles, David Jung, founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Co., invented the fortune cookie as a sweet treat and encouraging word for unemployed men who gathered on the streets.Some claim the cookie was more likely invented as a gimmick for Jung’s noodle business than as an icon of social concern. Mass production like this allows the East Coast’s biggest fortune-cookie maker, Wonton Food Inc., of Brooklyn, New York, to ship 60 million cookies a month. There are several claims on the originality of the fortune cookie. [8] The machine allowed for mass production of fortune cookies which subsequently allowed the cookies to drop in price to become the novelty and courtesy dessert many Americans are familiar with after their meals at most Chinese restaurants today. The fortune cookie was actually invented in Kyoto, Japan in the 19 th century. Because of this, the Chi… Since then, the myth has grown that the fortune cookie originated in China centuries ago, while … The invention of the fortune cookie manufacturing machine by Shuck Lee completely revitalised the industry. However, there is no surviving documentation showing how he came up with the idea. One history of the fortune cookie claims that David Jung, a Chinese immigrant living in Los Angeles and founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Company, invented the cookie in 1918. The shop recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, and a mold purportedly used to make the original cookies is prominently displayed in its window. The piece of paper usually has a vague prophecy or an aphorism. If this interpretation of history is true, then it is not surprising that many Californians who immigrated from Japan and China claim to have either invented or popularized fortune cookies. Who invented the Fortune Cookies as we know today, the one being served at all Chinese restaurants?And how the custom of Chinese restaurants serving them started? Read on to learn more about the history of the fortune cookie. As it turns out though, fortune cookies were actually invented in Japan, which is probably why there are so many credible stories of Japanese immigrants in the early 20th century “inventing” fortune cookies. Every fall (the 15th day of the eighth month in the Chinese calendar, to be exact) the Chinese celebrate the mid-Autumn Moon Festival. On the night of the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival, the rebels attacked and overthrew the government, leading to the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Fortune cookies are sweet biscuits that are a folded circular shape, and they have a paper slip inside, that typically contains a message, which is revealed once the cookie is broken in half. Among them are David Jung (the founder of Los Angeles’ Hong Kong Noodle Company) and Makoto Hagiwara (the famed landscape designer who oversaw the expansion of San Francisco’s Japanese Tea Garden … A Chinese immigrant, David Jung, owner of the Chinese Noodle House, invented the cookie in 1918 after growing concerned for the poor people around his shop. Regarding Los Angeles, it is said that David Jung, a Chinese immigrant living in Los Angeles invented the cookie in 1918, as he wanted to offer it … In gratitude, he gave his supporters cookies with thank-you messages inside, inspired by traditional Japanese senbei rice wafers. It’s a mystery shrouded in an enigma wrapped in a cookie. His Los Angeles based business even went to court over it. The Japanese version of the cookie differs in several ways: they are a little bit larger; are made of darker dough; and their batter contains sesame and miso rather than vanilla and butter. He claimed to have invented the fortune cookie around 1918, handing out baked cookies filled with inspiring passages of scripture to unemployed men. Apparently, Makoto Hagiwara of Golden Gate Park’s Japanese Tea Gardenin San Francisco is said to have invented the cookie in 1909, while David Jung, founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Company in Los Angeles, is also reported to have created them in 1918. A Japanese version called tsujiara senbei is the direct predecessor of the fortune cookies we enjoy today. A fortune cookie is a crisp cookie usually made from flour, sugar, vanilla, and sesame seed oil with a piece of paper inside, a "fortune", on which is an aphorism, or a vague prophecy. David Jung from Hong Kong Noodle Company The founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Company, David Jung, is one of the well-known claims regarding the fortune cookie. Today, you’ll find omikuji-senbei (“fortune crackers”) sold in bakeries in Japan. As far back as the 19th century, a cookie very similar in appearance to the modern fortune cookie was made in Kyoto, Japan; and there is a Japanese temple tradition of random fortunes, called omikuji. This cookie differed from today’s version in that it was a bit larger, made of darker dough, and contained sesame and miso rather than vanilla and butter. The message inside may also include a Chinese phrase with translation and/or a list of lucky numbers used by some as lottery numbers, some of which have become actual winning numbers. Present-day fortune cookies are light in color, small enough to fit in the palm of your hand, and flavored with vanilla and sesame oil. Some say the modern fortune cookie has its origins in an ancient Chinese game played by the nobility and members of the upper classes. The bakery he founded, Fugetsudo, still stands in Los Angeles’s Little Tokyo section, where it is run by Kito’s descendants. They Weren’t Invented in China. (His grandson, George Hagiwara, believes the correct date is between 1907 and 1909). That is the claim of the proprietors of Fugetsu-Do, a family-owned and operated bakery in the Little Tokyo district of downtown Los Angeles. On (possibly) its 100th anniversary, the delphic delicacy is being used for a lot more than telling your future. In 1983, the San Francisco Court of Historical Review held a mock trial to settle the issue for once and for all. Highly recommend it if you want to learn more about Chinese food and culture. In 2001 Wonton Food began selling ad space on the back of its fortunes and baking cookies with custom-written messages inside. Jung gave the cookies, which carried Bible verses inside, to the unemployed as inspiration. And the fortune cookie was invented by a Japanese person, but it was popularized in America.” Emoji, too, were invented by a Japanese person … Thus, fortune cookies are sometimes humorously referred to as “A Chinese food invented by the Japanese in America”. A great leap forward came in 1981 with the introduction of the Fortune HI machine, which automated the entire production process, from mixing the ingredients and baking the dough to inserting the fortune and folding the wafer. As a result, Lotus Fortune Cookie Company could make 90,000 cookies a day. The concept for the tiny after-dinner desserts actually originated in Japan and spread to America at the turn of the century! Free subscription >>, Please consider a donation to help us keep this American treasure alive. In fact, modern-day fortune cookies first appeared in California in the early 1900s. If that were true, my friend, Kipp at the Rock Bottom blog would be fortune-less because his cookie had no fortune in it at all….very unfortunate.. In the wake of its mainstreaming and subsequent industrialization, the fortune cookie has been pressed into service as an advertising medium. Believe It or Not! Trusted Writing on History, Travel, Food and Culture Since 1949. Read more >>, The magazine was forced to suspend print publication in 2013, but a group of volunteers saved the archives and relaunched it in digital form in 2017. Nowadays they’re all but nonexistent there. They don’t exist in China. Today the company specializes in custom-made fortune cookies for trade shows, weddings, and other events. That's right -- the fortune cookie is not Chinese at all. Almost every Chinese restaurant ends a meal with a few fortune cookies, those crunchy, folded treats with a special message inside. Another Los Angeles candidate is Seichi Kito, a Japanese-American baker who put haiku verses inside cookies and sold them to Chinese restaurants. Of the two, Hagiwara seems to have the stronger claim. However, many say that David Jung, the founder of Hong Kong Noodle Company in Los Angeles had invented the Chinese fortune cookie in 1918. It also contained a fortune on a small slip of paper which reflected the Japanese temple tradition of random fortunes. One is that of Los Angeles and the other one is that of San Francisco. →Subscribe for new videos every day! In 1960 a New York City Council candidate handed out fortune cookies that contained campaign pitches, and the director Billy Wilder had 20,000 promotional cookies made for his 1966 film The Fortune Cookie . In fairness to Daniel M. Hanlon, the real-life federal judge who presided over the case, his decision rested on weightier pieces of evidence, including a set of grills. But for now, Los Angeles (County) will have to be satisfied with being the official birthplace of the Cobb Salad and the Shirley Temple mocktail. Some historical references suggest it was Makoto Hagiwara who invented the fortune cookie at the Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco in 1914. Fortune cookies didn’t make their way to China until 1989, and they were sold as “genuine American fortune cookies,” believe it or not. The fortune cookie as we know it was invented by Makoto Hagiwara. But where does the inspiration for modern-day fortune cookie messages come from? Get it free when you sign up for our newsletter. Edward Louie, who invented the fortune-cookie machine, died Friday. He claims he invented the cookie in 1918 after seeing poor people wandering around the neighboring streets. The families of Japanese or Chinese immigrants in California that claim to have invented or popularized fortune cookies all date the cookie's appearance between 1907 and 1914. Jung gave the cookies, which carried Bible verses inside, to the unemployed as inspiration. Jung claimed to have baked the cookies in 1918 as an encouraging treat for unemployed and down on their luck people who walked the streets looking for work. … Fortune cookies have not been known to originate in America for most people. The food was Chinese, but also not Chinese at all. Fortune cookies were first invented in America. There are several claims on the originality of the fortune cookie. In a theatrical atmosphere that would have seemed less startling a century earlier, participants wore yellow makeup and Celestial costumes and spoke in pidgin English as they presented the oral history underlying each side’s case. From here, things get a little tricky. He claimed to have invented the fortune cookie around 1918, handing out baked cookies filled with inspiring passages of scripture to unemployed men. The presiding magistrate, Daniel M. Hanlon (a federal judge in real life), ruled for San Francisco, as expected, but Los Angeles boosters ignored his decision, considering it as legitimate as a Dodgers-Giants game officiated by San Francisco sandlot umpires. A very popular story dates back to 1918 when, in Los Angeles, founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Co., David Jung, invented the fortune cookie as a tasty treat and encouraging word for unemployed men who gathered on the streets. Today’s prepackaged meal-ending prophecy has Asian antecedents that go back to the thirteenth century, when anti-Mongol rebels in China passed secret messages in cakes. The Chinese immigrant, David Jung, who founded the Hong Kong Noodle Company while living in Los Angeles, invented the cookie in 1918. As far as I know they’re not Chinese at all. Who invented the first Fortune Cookies. http://bit.ly/todayifoundoutsubscribe →Why Do Superheroes Wear Their Underwear on the Outside? The only question is where. In the late 1960s, looking for a way to spare his family the ordeal of turning out thousands of cookies … No Chinese meal would be complete without elegantly folded, fortune-stuffed cookies for dessert. And, thanks to the exhaustive efforts of Japanese researcher Yasuko Nakamachi, we now know that at about the same time the Chinese railway workers were laying down tracks, tsujiura senbei (rice cakes containing paper fortunes) were being made at the Hyotanyama Inari shrine outside Kyoto in Japan. He made the cookie and passed them out to the less fortunate for free as a way to raise spirits. Chinese entrepreneurs stepped in to fill the void and by the end of the war they were indelibly associated with fortune cookies, whose popularity had spread nationwide. Rather, it's a Mexican folk saying like, "A cat that sleeps will catch no mice." Fortune cookies aren’t folded before they’re baked. Each cookie contained a strip of paper with an inspirational Bible scripture on it, written for Jung by a Presbyterian minister. The fortune cookie industry changed dramatically after the fortune cookie machine was invented by Shuck Yee from Oakland, California. The first fortune cookie was made in Los Angeles, California. A Chinese immigrant named David Jung of Los Angeles claimed he invented the fortune cookie in 1918. There is some discrepancy, however, on who actually invented the cookie. Fortune cookies are when Japanese meet Americans meet Chinese. It … Chinese immigrant David Jung, founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Company in Los Angeles, made a competing claim that he invented the fortune cookie just before World War I. the tasty fortune cookies that come with your Chinese take-out weren’t invented in China. The rumors that these cookies originated from China are false. Children hear the legend of how, in the 14th century, the Chinese threw off their Mongol oppressors by hiding messages in Mooncakes (which the Mongols did not like to eat). It's not a fortune like you would expect from a cookie in a Chinese restaurant. CC mliu92 Despite their Japanese origin, fortune cookies became an iconic treat because of the Chinese-Americans who popularized them over the years. A Japanese immigrant who had served as official caretaker of the Japanese Tea Gardens in San Francisco since 1895, Hagiwara began serving the cookies at the Tea Garden sometime between 1907 and 1914. Yet another possibility is that the fortune cookie was invented by a Japanese American living in Los Angeles. The message inside the fortune cookie might also be a list of lucky number or a Chinese … Most sources credit either Makoto Hagiwara or David Jung with the invention of the fortune cookie. Today the nearly 30-foot-long Japanese-made Kitamura FCM-8006W can produce 8,000 per hour. →Subscribe for new videos every day! Despite its association with Chinese restaurants, the fortune cookie was invented in the United States and may have either Chinese or Japanese roots. Still, it came as no surprise when the Court sided with Hagiwara and ruled that San Francisco is the birthplace of the fortune cookie. © Copyright 1949-2018 American Heritage Publishing Co. All Rights Reserved. But others claim it was a Chinese immigrant and founder of Los Angeles' Hong Kong Noodle Company, David Jung, who came up with the idea for fortune cookies when he began handing out " baked cookies filled with inspiring passages of scripture " to the unemployed. Please support this 70-year tradition of trusted historical writing and the volunteers that sustain it with a donation to American Heritage. Despite the fact that fortune cookies have proved about as popular in China as a plate of cooked spinach is to the average five-year-old, their origins may be Chinese after all. Make your favorite takeout recipes at home with our cookbook! A Chinese immigrant named David Jung of Los Angeles claimed he invented the fortune cookie in 1918. In 1983 a mock court battle was held between the two primary claimants of this honor, one from Fortune cookies might not even have been invented by someone Chinese: the Mock trial result or not, it’s impossible to authoritatively state precisely where, when, or by whom the fortune cookie was invented. Not surprisingly, Angelenos ignored the ruling: many sources continue to credit Jung with inventing fortune cookies. According to Jennifer 8. Three different men claim to have invented the Chinese fortune cookie, and they all lived in California in the early 20th century.. Japanese immigrant Makoto Hagiwara, the owner of the Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco, said he first served the modern version of the fortune cookie in the early 1900s. http://bit.ly/todayifoundoutsubscribe →Why Do Superheroes Wear Their Underwear on the Outside? David Jung was a Chinese immigrant who established the Los Angeles’s Hong Kong Noodle company. During this time, all Chinese fortune cookies were made by hand. Judge who rules for L.A. not very smart cookie." Concerned about the poor people he saw wandering near his shop, he created the cookie and passed them out free on the streets. He made the cookie and passed them out to the less fortunate for free as a way to raise spirits. Rhonda Parkinson is a freelance writer who has authored many cookbooks, including two Everything guides to Chinese cooking. But the fortune cookie in its present form, with a cheerful prediction or affirmation folded inside a brittle beige carapace carefully prepared to simulate the flavor of Styrofoam, is known to have originated in California early in the twentieth century. During the trial, someone provided the judge with a fortune cookie containing the message "S.F. And, Chinese restaurants have the fortune cookie. They begin their journey to … The message inside may also include a Chinese phrase with translation and/or a list of lucky numbers used by some as lottery numbers, some of which have become actual winning numbers. At this point, the weight of historical evidence seems to agree with a man interviewed for the movie, “The Killing of a Chinese Cookie”, who states, “The Japanese invented the fortune cookie, the Chinese advertised it, and the Americans tasted it.” Still, as author Lee says, it’s “a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside a cookie.”. In the United States, fortune cookies were dominated by Japanese vendors. For 70 years, American Heritage has been the leading magazine of U.S. history, politics, and culture. February 6, 2017 by Neo / 0. Visitors to the shop can still see the original fortune cookie molds on display in the front store window “collecting dust and memories.”. (The Court has no legal authority; other weighty culinary issues they have settled include whether or not chicken soup deserves its reputation as "Jewish Penicillin.")

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