timaeus and critias atlantis
And the stone they quarried beneath the central island all round, and from beneath the outer and inner circles, some of it being white, some black (116b) and some red; and while quarrying it they constructed two inner docks, hollowed out and roofed over by the native rock. The ancient Greek scribe described Atlantis as an Eden-like environment brimming with natural resources, mountains, and exotic fruit. SOCRATES And when we had given to each one that single employment and particular art (17d) which was suited to his nature, we spoke of those who were intended to be our warriors, and said that they were to be guardians of the city against attacks from within as well as from without, and to have no other employment; they were to be merciful in judging their subjects, (18a) of whom they were by nature friends, but fierce to their enemies, when they came across them in battle. Appropriate subheadings in brackets  provide overview and orientation in the text. The Critias, the second part of Plato's work, comprises an account of the rise and fall of Atlantis, an ancient, mighty, and prosperous empire ruled by the descendants of Poseidon, which ultimately sank into the sea. Critias (/ Ë k r Éª t i É s /; Greek: ÎÏÎ¹ÏÎ¯Î±Ï), one of Plato's late dialogues, recounts the story of the mighty island kingdom Atlantis and its attempt to conquer Athens, which failed due to the ordered society of the Athenians. All this including the zones and the bridge, which was the sixth part of a stadium in width, they surrounded by a stone wall on every side, placing towers and gates on the bridges where the sea passed in. The depth, and width, and length of this ditch were incredible, and gave the impression that a work of such extent, in addition to so many others, could never have been artificial. And as to the city, this is the way in which it was laid out at that time. 3.5 The Atlantis myth. Such then were the military dispositions of the royal City; and those of the other nine varied in various ways, which it would take a long time to tell. �In the Delta of Egypt,� said Critias, �where, at its head, the stream of the Nile parts in two, there is a certain district called the Saitic. (108b) So, in order that he may provide a different prelude and not be compelled to repeat the same one, let him assume, when he comes to speak, that he already has our indulgence. Ancient underwater ruins found in several places across the globe continuously spark the question whether or not they're a part of the legend of Atlantis. Thus, with united effort, each taking his part, we will endeavor to the best of our powers to do justice to the theme you have prescribed. SOCRATES I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid feast of reason. TIMAEUS (112a) For the fact is that a single night of excessive rain washed away the earth and laid bare the rock; at the same time there were earthquakes, and then occurred the extraordinary inundation, which was the third before the great destruction of Deucalion. And one of our fellow tribesmen�whether he really thought so at the time or whether he was paying a compliment (21c) to Critias�declared that in his opinion Solon was not only the wisest of men in all else, but in poetry also he was of all poets the noblest. If our views are correct, it is one of the most valuable records which have come down to us from antiquity. Sources are credible and the hunt continues. We must endeavor next to repeat the account of the rest of the country, (118a) what its natural character was, and in what fashion it was ordered. And near the place of the present Acropolis (112d) there was one spring� which was choked up by the earthquakes so that but small tricklings of it are now left round about; but to the men of that time it afforded a plentiful stream for them all, being well tempered both for winter and summer. But I should like to make my meaning clearer, if Timaeus, you will follow me. How, then, is this statement plausible, and what residue of the land then existing serves to confirm its truth? Thereupon one of the priests, who was of a very great age, said: O Solon, Solon, you Hellenes are never anything but children, and there is not an old man among you. And on the inland side of the city channels were cut in straight lines, of about 100 feet in width, across the plain, and these discharged themselves into the trench on the seaward side, the distance between each being 100 stades. I can only attempt to show that I ought to have more indulgence than you, because my theme is more difficult; and I shall argue that to seem to speak well of the gods to men is far easier (107b) than to speak well of men to men: for the inexperience and utter ignorance of his hearers about any subject is a great assistance to him who has to speak of it, and we know how ignorant we are concerning the gods. (22c) And this is the cause thereof: There have been and there will be many and divers destructions of mankind, of which the greatest are by fire and water, and lesser ones by countless other means. (23a) And if any event has occurred that is noble or great or in any way conspicuous, whether it be in your country or in ours or in some other place of which we know by report, all such events are recorded from of old and preserved here in our temples; whereas your people and the others are but newly equipped, every time, with letters and all such arts as civilized States require and when, after the usual interval of years, like a plague, the flood from heaven comes sweeping down afresh upon your people, (23b) it leaves none of you but the unlettered and uncultured, so that you become young as ever, with no knowledge of all that happened in old times in this land or in your own. So, with this in my mind, when you requested me yesterday to expound my views of the polity I gratified you most willingly, since I knew that none could deal more adequately than you (if you were willing) with the next subject of discourse; for you alone, of men now living, could show our State engaged in a suitable war and exhibiting all the qualities which belong to it. SOCRATES Ironheart summoned them to the human world, to help him defeat Dartz , who was trying to wipe out the population of Atlantis and start fresh. So by just allotments they received each one his own, and they settled their countries; and when they had thus settled them, they reared us up, even as herdsmen (109c) rear their flocks, to be their cattle and nurslings; only it was not our bodies that they constrained by bodily force, like shepherds guiding their flocks with stroke of staff, but they directed from the stern where the living creature is easiest to turn about, laying hold on the soul by persuasion, as by a rudder, according to their own disposition; and thus they drove and steered all the mortal kind.
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